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Advanced Practical Course M - Nuclear Physics

This is the webpage for the experiments on nuclear physics in the Advanced Practical Course M. On this webpage the experiments are summarized, providing the experiments' topics, manuals, and the respective tutors.
General information on the Advanced Practical Course M and on the registration you can find on the main webpage, as well as in the bulletin.


Organizational matters read more ▾

Registration for the Advanced Practical Course M

The registration for the Advanced Practical Course M has to be done via the online database until Thursday, 11.10.2018.

Briefing for the Advanced Practical Course M

At the beginning of every semester there is a briefing on safety aspects and radiation protection. In order to perform the experiments of the Advanced Practical Course M in nuclear physics, it is compulsory to attend this briefing. Participation at the briefing must not date back more than 12 months, otherwise a repetition is required.
The next briefing takes place on Monday, 15.10.2018, at 02:00 pm (in german) and at 02:45 pm (in english) in 'Hörsaal I' of the Institutes of Physics.



Experiments

M3.1: Dosimetry read more ▾

Experiment M_3.1: Geiger-Müller counter Radiation protection is a preliminary to any exposure to ionizing radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the interrelation of activity, energy dose, and energy-dose rate is mandatory. Activities and dose rates are determined for some γ-ray sources, using a Geiger-Müller counter. In the second part of the experiment fundamentals on neutron activation and the determination of lifetimes of excited energy states in the atomic nucleus are treated. Therefore, the decay curves of the nuclides 116m1In and 104mRh, which have been activated by (n,γ) reactions, are measured. The measurement of the rhodium sample requires some skillfulness due to the observation of two short-lived states.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 106

Tutor:


Eschly Kluge     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-3649 | 



M3.2: Cosmic radiation read more ▾

Experiment M_3.2: cosmic radiation In this experiment cosmic rays are detected by a telescope consisting of two plastic scintillators. The intensity of the cosmic rays is analyzed for its dependence on the zenith angle, caused by the earth's magnetic field, i.e. the so-called east-west effect. To enable a measurement of this effect, the two scintillators are mounted on a rotatable frame and are operated in a coincidence circuit. The experiment focusses on important characteristics of cosmic rays and the earth's magnetic field as well as on a technically demanding setup.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 402

Tutor:


Dr. Michael Seidlitz     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-3623 | 



M3.3: Rutherford scattering read more ▾

Experiment M_3.3: Rutherford scattering In this experiment the famous experiment of Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden, which lead to the development of the nuclear model, is reproduced. Therefore, α particles emitted by a radioactive source are scattered on a thin foil made of gold, before they are detected in a silicon detector. The refined measurement setup, invented by Chadwick, allows for a measurement of the angular distribution of the scattered α particles with up to five data points on a single day. Pulse-height spectra are recorded for different scattering angles. After integration of the spectra - and following transformation into the center-of-mass system - the measured intensities are converted into absolute cross sections.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 107

Tutor:


Dr. Stefan Heinze     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-3638 | 



M3.4: β scintillation read more ▾

Experiment M_3.4: setup This experiments adresses the properties of the β decay, that led to the postulation of the neutrino by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930. Energy spectra of electrons from the β decay of 207Bi and 137Cs are measured using a scintillation detector. The (continuous) energy spectrum of the electrons and the corresponding Kurie plot are compared to the theoretically expected distribution. Contributions coming from conversion electrons of coincident γ decays have to be taken into account.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 107

Tutor:


Dr. Philipp Scholz     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-5742 | 



M3.5: Anti-Compton spectroscopy read more ▾

Experiment M_3.5: setup This experiment is an advanced version of the experiment "B3.2: γ-ray spectroscopy" (Practical Course B). Differences between a NaI scintillator and a high-purity semiconductor detector are investigated. Moreover, using different detectors for veto signals, Compton suppression is studied for various positions of a radioactive source, investigating the resulting γ-ray energy spectra. The suppression of Compton-scattered γ rays is key for Anti-Compton spectroscopy and its application in modern γ-ray spectroscopy. Evaluation of the characteristics of the experimental setup is completed by studying an "unknown" γ-ray source.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 112

Tutor:


Dr. Herbert Hess     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-3620 | 



M3.6: Lifetime measurement read more ▾

Experiment M_3.6: setup The lifetimes of nuclear excited states are important observables in nuclear physics. Their precise measurement is of key importance for developing and testing nuclear models as they are directly linked with the wave functions of the nuclear system. For lifetimes from the μs region down to the few ps region, the electronic fast-timing technique is most widely used. This technique provides a direct lifetime measurement by means of time-difference measurements between the γ rays which feed and decay from an excited state. Very fast CeBr3 scintillation detectors with good energy resolution will be used to detect and select the γ rays. The analog energy signals of the detectors are connected to a digital acquisition system for a real-time digital pulse-shape analysis. The data are acquired in a time-ordered listmode format for coincidence analyses, such as the generation of γ-γ time-difference spectra. The lifetimes of the first excited 2+ states in 152Gd and 152Sm, produced in the decay of 152Eu, will be measured. This experiment also provides insight into modern digital data-acquistition systems, which make it possible to perform complex experiments, as actually done at the 10 MV tandem accelerator of the IKP.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 106

Tutor:


Dr. Jean-Marc Régis     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-3622 | 



M3.7: Coulomb scattering of identical particles, spin and read more ▾
statistics at the tandem accelerator

Experiment M_3.7: scattering chamber The angular distributions of elastically scattered identical bosons (12C on 12C) and fermions (13C on 13C) are investigated at the Cologne tandem accelerator, using particle energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Due to the exchange symmetry the distribution of the scattered particles is symmetric around Θc.m.=90°. Moreover, the exchange symmetry causes an interference pattern, similar to the one of a double slit, which depends in a distinctive manner on the spin and statistics of the scattering particles. Additionally, the experiment gives insight into the operation of a particle accelerator, the electronic measuring equipment and the typical data analysis.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, Control Room of the tandem accelerator

Tutor:


Prof. Dr. Peter Reiter     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-3624 | 



M3.8: Analog electronics read more ▾

Experiment M_3.8: function generator Analog signals, produced in nuclear physics experiments, have to be processed electronically, to extract all necessary information they contain. Knowledge of the effects of active and passive electronic devices on these signals is essential. In the experiment the characteristics of such electronic devices (e.g. differentiation, integration, delay, amplification, frequency and time response) are studied. An introduction in operating an oscilloscope and a signal generator is given. The experiment focusses on passive quadripoles, i.e. RC-circuits (low-pass and high-pass filters), oscillating circuits, and the cable itself.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 107

Tutor:


N.N.     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-36xx | 



M3.9: Digital electronics read more ▾

Experiment M_3.9: logical unit State-of-the-art experiments in nuclear physics generally utilize digital data acquisition systems, to transduce, to process and to analyze the incoming (analog) signals for their information content. All information is stored in terms of binary digits, i.e. 0 and 1. The experiment illustrates digital signal processing on the basis of basic digital circuits (e.g. counter, shift register, digital adder). Therefore, a shift register and a digital adder are built by logical units.

Downloads:

Location:

Institute for Nuclear Physics, room 106

Tutor:


M.Sc. Rouven Hirsch     Telefon: +49 (0)221 470-3640 | 



You can select the four experiments you want to participate in from the list of experiments. Please send your request to Dr. Michael Seidlitz. We will try to take your preferences into account. If we do not receive a request, we will schedule four randomly selected experiments for you.

Please notice that the experiments on nuclear physics in the Advanced Practical Course M will only take place at fixed dates on Monday and Thursday during the lecture period for reasons of radiation protection.


Contact person

You have questions concerning the experiments on nuclear physics in the Advanced Practical Course M? Please refer to:

Dr. Michael Seidlitz    

Room 308
Phone: +49 (0)221 470-3623


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